¿Conoces la diferencia entre Lengua y Dialecto?

 

No existen criterios exactos para distinguir las lenguas de los dialectos, aunque existen varios criterios que presentan resultados contradictorios.

La diferencia exacta es por tanto subjetiva. Informalmente se habla de dialectos y de lenguas de acuerdo a contextos socio-políticos. Algunas variedades de lenguaje son denominadas dialectos por estas razones:

• Por no disponer de tradición escrita o literatura escrita reconocida: Aunque hasta donde conocemos todos los grupos humanos han poseído literatura oral.

• Por factores políticos, los hablantes no tienen un estado o nación propios.

• El término dialecto es usado intencionalmente para no reconocer derechos políticos.

• Por la falta de prestigio, la variedad carece de reconocimiento porque es hablado por un reducido número de personas.

Pero todas las lenguas naturales usadas en la comunicación son prácticamente idénticas tanto en complejidad como en criterios lingüísticos y no puede decirse que existan lenguas incorrectas.

• Por la falta de autonomía, no se considera que existe diferencias gramaticales con respecto de una variedad investigada como dominante, hay una tendencia a clasificar como dialecto a las variedades que difieren casi exclusivamente en rasgos fonéticos o de vocabulario.

El término dialecto tiene uso en la sociolingüística, es un término de humillación muchas veces para lenguas minoritarias de mucha importancia cultural, como las lenguas indígenas.

El criterio de inteligibilidad tampoco es una buena para predecir cuando sea calificado el dialecto de lengua.

 El idioma chino tiene dos dialectos principales el chino mandarín y el chino cantones, los cuales no son claros entre sí, pero aún así se les califica de dialectos de la misma lengua.

Por el contrario, el sueco, el noruego y el danés son consideradas lenguas y no dialectos.


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87 Comments to “¿Conoces la diferencia entre Lengua y Dialecto?”

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